1) With Talend ESB 5.4. (e.g. also with TOS4ESB) you can use the tRESTRequest component to upload binary data into a byte array which you then can use in other tXX components. But keep in mind that the file you upload is hold in memory on the REST provider, means you need to be sure about the max. size and the memory consumption on the provider. But for smaller files it might be ok. E.g. upload a profile image to a new user account in a single rest call with the meta data and the picture (as binary) of the person.
2) using a Route with cHttp and cFile to get the file content via standard HTTP and save it to a local file directly which you then might run a scheduled DI Job on or you directly call the tXXX components from the route to further process the file with cTalendJob.